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Tic Disorders

Tic Disorder Index Tics: Definitions and descriptions
Chief complaint: Unusual movements Other movement patterns and disorders
Medications for tics Articles on tic disorders
Books on tic disorders

Chief Complaint: Unusual Movements

Tic:
Sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization

Clinical Considerations

  1. Developmentally appropriate self-stimulatory behaviors in young children
  2. Mannerisms
  3. Attention deficit disorders
  4. Factitious disorder with predominantly physical signs and symptoms
  5. Mental retardation
  6. Obsessive compulsive disorder
  7. Self-mutilation associated with certain psychotic disorders and personality disorders
  8. Stuttering
  9. Trichotillomania
  10. Tic disorders
    1. Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
    2. Tourette's disorder
    3. Tourette's disorder with associated chromosomal disorder, e.g.,
      • XYY karotype
      • Triple X mosacism
      • Fragile X syndrome
      • Chromosome 9p mosacism
      • Trisomy 21
    4. Transient tic disorder
    5. Tic disorder not otherwise specified
    6. Post-rheumatic tics
    7. Abnormal movements/tics that may accompany general medical conditions, e.g.,
      • Wilson's disease
      • Sydenham's chorea
      • Collagen vascular diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE)
      • Thyroid disease, such as Grave's disease
      • Acanthocytosis
    8. Involuntary movements/tics associated with neurological conditions, e.g.,
      • Huntington's disease
      • Cerebral vascular asccident ("stroke")
      • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
      • Multiple sclerosis
      • Postviral encephalitis
      • Tuberous sclerosis
      • Head injury
      • Seizure disorders
      • Ataxia telangiectasia
    9. Medication-induced movement disorder not otherwise specified (direct effects of a substance, e.g.,
      • Neuroleptic medication (tardive Tourette's syndrome)
      • Methylphenidate
      • Dexedrine
      • Buproprion
  11. Self-stimulatory behaviors in individuals with sensory deficits
  12. Akathitic movements
  13. Dyskinesia
    1. Choreiform movements
    2. Dystonic movements
    3. Athetoid movements
    4. Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis
    5. Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dystonia
  14. Myoclonic movements
    1. Arrhythmic myoclonus
    2. Opsoclonus
    3. Ocular myoclonus
    4. Palatal myoclonus
    5. Rhythmic segmental myoclonus
  15. Hemiballismic movements
  16. Hyperekplexia
  17. Spasms
    1. Hemifacial spasm
  18. Synkinesis
  19. Sleep related movements
    1. Periodic movements in sleep
    2. Painful legs, moving toes
    3. Restless legs syndrome
    4. Rhythmic segmental myoclonus

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